A sequence of rulers from the same family. The division of the once-unified Israel into two kingdoms occurred when Jeroboam, from the tribe of Ephraim, led the northern tribes’ revolt against Solomon’s son, Rehoboam. Israel could no longer avoid the Assyrians. A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation. The capital fell to an Assyrian siege in 722. The division of the united kingdom after Solomon's death (after another 40-year reign) is explained in 1 Kings as punishment for Solomon's tolerance of idolatry. There are no contemporary extra-biblical references to the leaders of the United Kingdom. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); The area of the Northern Kingdom of Israel fluctuated greatly, and scholars disagree as to it actual borders at any given time. Briefly united under David and Solomon, Israel in the north and Judah in the south were separate kingdoms for centuries, indicating strong differences between the two. There is little to suggest that inhabitants of the territory known as "Israel" had acted together previously except in opposition to the house of David. The United Kingdom of Saul, David, and Solomon endured for a period of 120 biblical years and then split into two nations. However because even the kings of this pro-Yahwist dynasty allow the worship of the Canaanite goddess Ashera and refuse to pull down the bull calf statues at Dan and Bethel, they too are judged as evil in God's sight. When war with Damascus broke out again, and Ahab died battle at Ramoth-Gilead. Chronicles also lacks a running account of the divided kingdom of Israel, which its author considered theologically illegitimate. After Saul's death in battle with the Philistines, David was anointed king by the tribe of Judah at Herbron, where he remained for seven years. Archaeological evidence seems to confirm the existence of a shrine at Dan, but not necessarily at Bethel (Betin). (17:5). Professor, Rhodes College. God provides a final chance for repentance during the days of Jeroboam II through the prophecies of Amos and Hosea. He defended Israel against the threat from Damascus and eventually forged an alliance with Judah and Damascus against the growing Assyrian power of Shalmaneser II. The united monarchy ended after Solomon's death, when the northern tribes rebelled and became their own kingdom (Israel). until its destruction by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E. The Hebrew Bible’s central focus is the fate of the kingdom of Judah, which was relatively small and subject to powerful ancient Near Eastern empires. The prophet Elisha went so far as to anoint the Syrian leader Hazael to punish Israel's alleged idolatry and instigated a coup de etat against Joram by a military leader, Jehu. He built the temple in Jerusalem but is also blamed by the biblical authors for worshiping other gods, which were introduced by his foreign wives whom he had married in order to seal treaties. Saul Proclaimed King A region in northern Mesopotamia whose kings ruled most of the ancient Near East in the 8th and 7th centuries B.C.E. “Kingdom of Israel” refers both to the united kingdom under Saul, David, and Solomon and to the northern kingdom of Israel, which separated from the united kingdom after the death of Solomon. These kingdoms remained separate states for over two hundred years. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_0',167,'0','0'])); The biblical writers see the hand of God in such events as Jehu's brutal murder of Ahab's family and the mass slaughter of the prophet-priests of Baal by Elijah and later again by Jehu. The supreme male divinity of Mesopotamia and Canaan. The tribe of Judah alone remained in what became the southern kingdom and continued to be ruled by a king of the Davidic line. A natural leader of uncommonly tall physical stature, he gained important military victories against Israel's traditional enemies, the Philistines and Amalekites. Israel was initially at a disadvantage against Judah due a lack of a standing army and also because of internal strife. He built an impressive new capital, the strategically located town of Samaria in central Palestine, increasing his control of overland trade and providing good access to the Mediterranean. The judgment is anachronistic, though, because centralization of worship in Jerusalem was only first established as an ideological principle under King Josiah of Judah over two centuries later, around 622 B.C.E.    |    Donate, https://www.bibleodyssey.org:443/en/places/main-articles/kingdom-of-israel, Mormon Scripture and the Lost Tribes of Israel, Biblical History and Israel’s Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History, Introduction to the Historical Books: Strategies for Reading, The Legacy of Israel in Judah’s Bible: History, Politics, and the Reinscribing of Tradition, The term “kingdom of Israel” can refer either to the united, Jeroboam’s act of setting up golden calves at Dan and Bethel in. This enabled Jehoahaz' son Joash (also called Jehoash to distinguish him from the Judean king of the same name) to defeat Damascus' new king, Ben-hadad III, in battle and recapture lost territory. This kingdom existed alongside the southern kingdom of Judah, which encompassed the more limited territory of the tribe of Judah. His research and teaching interests include the history of ancient Israel, the literature of the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew language, the Dead Sea Scrolls, methods of biblical interpretation, and archaeology. Despite his friendship with Jerusalem, Ahab's marriage to Jezebel and his reported willingness to honor the Phoenician deity Baal brought religious strife with Yahwist elements centering on the powerful itinerant prophets Elijah and Elisha, whose opposition eventually proved fatal to the promise of the Omrian dynasty. The second begins with Omri and ends with the coup by Jehu. The kingdom consisting of the northern Israelites tribes, which existed separately from the southern kingdom of Judah. Menahem's main recorded contribution was to stave off invasion by paying a tribute of thousand talents of silver to Tiglathpileser III. The overthrow of Omri’s dynasty by the usurper Jehu was one of the bloodiest episodes in Israel’s history, though 2 Kings 9-10 narrates the event almost with glee at the downfall of Jezebel and the purge of the worship of Baal that followed. A line of officials holding a certain position over time. The northern kingdom is called “Israel” (or sometimes “Ephraim”) in Scripture, and the southern kingdom is called “Judah.” From the divine viewpoint, the division was a judgment on not keeping God’s commands, specifically the commands prohibiting idolatry. Omri also consolidated Israel politically and resisted both Damascus to the north and the Moabites to the south. Worship of a diety or cultural value not associated with the one, true, God. The Great Kingdom of Israel or Kingdom of Israel (in Hebrew: ממלכת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Mamlekt Yiśraˀel, Modern Hebrew: Mamlekhet Yisra'el, Tiberian vocalization: Mamléḵeṯ Yisrael) was an authoritarian monarchy that existed between 1046 BC and 430 BC. Following to the biblical text, the period of Israelite history in the 10th century B.C.E. The biblical texts create a complex portrait of a King David who was both a revered leader and a flawed man. After all, the bible has no objection to the golden statues of the cherubim that occupied a place of honor in the Temple of Jerusalem. It was split into Kingdom of Israel in the North and Kingdom of Judah in the South. Thereafter he continued to reign while the young and future king David gained fame among the southern tribes as a bandit leader of heroic proportions. 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