(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture. He thinks that if a researcher separates his daily life from his professional role, he can be free of biases. The belief that it is not the business of sociologist to make value judgments is taken by some to mean that the market on which they can vend their skills is unlimited. The assumptions underlying symbolic interactionism are. it defines the major orientation of a science, by defining the kinds of data that are to be abstracted. Theory is confused with speculation and theory remains speculation until it is proved. Social Structure:(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies. New and anomalous facts may initiate new theories. Certain sociologists like. When this proof is made, theory becomes fact. Further, the limitations that are encountered in the study of social phenomena are inherent in the very subject matter of Sociology and do not. How much precision is needed in social science will depend upon what the situation requires. (c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization. (150 …. Thus, social interaction must be interpreted in terms of these commonsense meanings, however for ethnomethodologist the basic problem of Sociology goes back even further than this. For more such notes, Articles, News & Views Join our Telegram Channel. Upendra sir sociology Handwritten Notes PDF Free Download, Sociology Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination, [PDF] Other Important Study Materials for Sociology, Sociology Class Notes of P.Upendra Sir For IAS Mains In English Medium. Consequently any attempt to understand social reality must take into account these meanings and motives. (c) Education and social change. These meanings influence the subsequent behaviour. Accordingly they must move beyond to find meaning of the phenomena and try to discover patterns and regularities in these meanings that they can represent as cultural themes. (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas. Sociology as Science: (a) Science, scientific method and critique. The value-free doctrine has a paradoxical potentiality; it might enable men to make better value judgments rather than none. (iv) Politics and Society :(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship. This is more difficult than philosophic speculation about reality or the collection of superficial certainties but it leads more surely to the achievement of scientific truth about social behavior. Various methods of data collection research should be used and the result obtained from one should be cross-checked with those from the other. Becker has said that it is indisputable that problems of bias and partisanship and present in all research and that research findings are often helpful to the interests of some people and damaging to other people. Max Weber have questioned the very idea that Sociology can ever be a positive science. (d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity. There is yet another set of sociologists -those identified as Ethnomethodologists- who try to analyze the commonsense nature of social interactions. (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. NCERT Books are the main Study guide for Central Government exams as well as UPSC exams. Sociology as Science-Science, Scientific Method and Critique: Questions 1-5 of 5. It could encourage a habit of mind that might help men in discriminating between their punitive drives and their ethical sentiments. Instead of saying, “most of the people were against family planning”, one says, “seventy-two per cent people were against family planning”. The other methods of data collection used by interpretative sociologists include the case-studies, use of life histories, personal diaries and correspondence and other biographical records to provide insights into the subjective dimension of the social behavior. (vi) Religion and Society :(a) Religious communities in India. Thus the values can operate at three levels: Sociologists should observe value neutrality while conducting social research. One extreme there exists anti-positivist approach like that of ethnomethodologists and on the other hand there are moderate critics of positivism like Max Weber whose approach tries to build a bridge between positivist approach and extreme form of interactionism. However theory may direct the scientific process, facts in turn play a significant role in the development of theory. We highly encourage visitors to Buy the Original content from their Official Sites. (b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology. The scientists are always impressed by authenticated reports. Although scientific research method depends on the collection of empirical facts, yet facts alone do not constitute a science. it summarizes facts into empirical generalizations and systems of generalizations. : natural science and social science will depend upon what the situation requires of Tepostalan village in Mexico facts! Marxist sociology ( A. R. Desai ) experiences of the questions asked in Civil service exams, all data are... Articles, News & Views Join our Telegram Channel facts alone do not fit the facts to the. Their culture which people come to establish meanings in social science research John law as over-socialized. Sex or ideological biases on social-research can be free of biases value neutrality were physical natural... 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