RAVINE: Deep, narrow cliff or gorge in the earth surface. SEDIMENT: Any material, mineral or organic matter deposited by water, air, etc., often called silt. INTERPOLATION: (1) Inferring the position of a point between known points on a graph by assuming that the variation between them is smooth. SHEATHING: A sheet metal covering over underwater timber to protect it against marine borers; sheeting. (3) A stirrup or steel rod usually about 6 to 10 mm diameter used for holding together the main steel in a reinforced-concrete beam or column. Reinforcement shall be inserted sufficient in quantity and closeness to make the cracks invisible to the naked eye and very close together. It is usually the top one foot of the soil. Queen closer: A brick cut lengthwise into two so that each piece is half as wide as the full brick. Its shrinkage rate, however, is higher than for types I and II, and extensive cracking may result. DEFORMED BAR: A reinforcing bar with ridges to increase bonding between the reinforcing bar and concrete. It requires very much less water for effective placing than does concrete compacted by punning, therefore it is much stronger. ADHESION OR BOND: The sticking together of structural parts by mechanical or chemical bonding using a cement or glue. ARITHMETIC MEAN: The average value which is defined as the sum of all of the observations divided by the number of observations. Buttress: A projection of masonry built into the front of the wall to strengthen it for lateral stability against thrust from an arch, roof, or wind pressure. Definition of Terms.” (a) The practice of civil engineering within the meaning and intent of this Act shall embrace services in the form of consultation, design, preparation of plans, specifications, estimates, erection, installation and COMPOUND: A homogeneous substance composed of two or more elements that can be decomposed by chemical changes only. The second type of bleeding occurs after compaction, water segregates beside or under the steel or larger stones, weakening the bond between them and the body of the concrete. FALSEWORK: Support for concrete formwork or for an arch during construction. ALLIGATOR CRACK: A crack caused by fatigue of the asphaltic concrete surface layer or excessive movement of the underlying layers. SHOVING: Displacement of flexible pavement caused by high shear stresses or because of deficient pavement material. KINETIC ENERGY: The energy of a moving body due to its mass and motion. Spall:  Bat or broken brick; stone chips. FLY-ASH: The ash which goes to the chimney from pulverized coal and is caught in the flue gas dust extractors. The most important admixtures for concrete are accelerators, air-entraining agents, plasticizers and retarders. CARRIAGEWAY: The part of a highway which carrier vehicles. SHORT COLUMN: A column which is so short that if overloaded it will fail not by crippling but by crushing. Concrete in hollow-tile floors is not vibrated. SAGGING MOMENT: A bending moment which causes a beam to sink in the middle. CALENDAR DAY: Any day shown on the calendar, and the 24-hour period thereof from ERRATIC: Values which seem to vary excessively from the average. Where the medians are so wide as to include areas of undisturbed land, a divided highway is considered as including two separate roadbeds. DETOUR: A temporary route for traffic around a closed portion of a road. Where many of the same unit are required, pre-casting may be more economical than casting in place, may give a better surface finish, reduce shrinkage of the concrete on the site and make stronger concrete. Squint Bricks: Bricks used for forming acute or obtuse corners in brick masonry. . Throating:  Term used for making a channel or groove on the under side of string courses copings, cornices or sun-shades, etc., to prevent rain water from running inside towards the walls. PILE: A long slender timber, concrete, or steel structural element, driven, jetted, or otherwise embedded on end in the ground for the purpose of supporting a load or compacting the soil. DUCT: A protective tube or a brick or concrete trench or corridor along which pipes or cables pass through the ground. RIPRAP: Rock used for the protection of embankments, cut slopes, etc., against agents of erosion, primarily water. FIXED COSTS: Any necessary labor, material and equipment costs, directly expended on the item or items under consideration which remain constant regardless of the quantity of the work done. TENDON: A pre-stressing bar, cable, rope, strand or wire. Voussoir : The wedge shaped structure component of a stone arch. FOUNDATION FAILURE: Foundations of buildings can fail in one of two ways, first by differential settlement, secondly by shear failure of the soil. SEALANT OR SEALING COMPOUND: (1) A fluid of plastic consistency laid over a joint surface or the outside of a joint filler to exclude water. In city sites where the foundations are on clay, all foundations suffer both inherent and interference settlement. The portions of the openings outside the frame are called Reveals. A coating for roads (e.g., bituminous emulsion) over a damp, recently cast concrete surface, which prevents loss of water, and thus ensures proper curing of the concrete. 200 sieve (74 micron), finer than sand but coarser than clay, such particles in the range from 2 to 50 micron. Type III: High-early strength Portland cement: This type develops its strength quickly. BASEMENT MATERIAL: The material in excavation or embankment underlying the lowest layer of sub-base, base, pavement, surfacing or other specified layer which is to be placed on. Consist meter test. FUSION WELDING: The welding of metals or plastics by any method which involves melting of the edges of the parts to be joined without pressure. . DADO: Concrete barrier on the sides of bridge approach slab; the part of pedestal between cap and base. MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY: The dry density obtained by a stated amount of compaction of a soil at the optimum moisture content. FORCE: That which tends to accelerate a body or change its movement (e.g., the weight of a body is a force which tends to move it downwards). The variation is with respect to location, not time. Quoin brick : A brick forming a corner in brickwork ; it has one end and one side exposed to view. Mat finish : A term applied to surface finishing (generally painting) which is free from gloss or polish (not shining). SUBSOIL: (1) The weather soil directly below the topsoil. May be caused by movement, either of the pavement structure or sub-grade or both. SILT: Granular material passing the No. Herring-bone work: Masonry work (generally in floors) in which the bricks are laid slanting in opposite directions. King closer: A brick cut lengthwise so that one end is nearly half the width of the other, They are used in the construction of jambs. SAND EQUIVALENT: A measure of the amount of clay contamination in fine aggregate. DATUM: Any elevation taken as a reference point for levelling. SCALING: A delamination of a thin portion of the top of Portland cement concrete. Usually the assumption is that the variation is linear (A straight-line variation). It is suitable for use when the structure must be put into early use or when long-term protection against cold temperatures is not feasible. 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