[2] In moderate to severe fluorosis, teeth are weakened and suffer permanent physical damage. Brown stain is frequently a disfiguring feature. Editor: MAR Buzalaf, Karger, Basel. Nervous breakdown and depression.• Urine is reddish yellow with less volume• Gastrointestinal problems are-recurrent constipation & diarrhoea, blood in stool and sudden pain in abdomen.• Calcification of muscle ligament and blood vessels• Reduced mental efficiency. Oil pulling - Ayurvedic treatment for gum and teeth problems, Diagnosis and treatment for Atopic Eczema. [3], It appears as a range of visual changes in enamel[4] causing degrees of intrinsic tooth discoloration, and, in some cases, physical damage to the teeth. After examining specimens of affected enamel, in 1916 Black described the condition as "[a]n endemic imperfection of the enamel of the teeth, heretofore unknown in the literature of dentistry. Dental fluorosis is the appearance of faint white lines or streaks on the teeth that only occurs when younger children consume too much fluoride, from any source, over long periods when teeth are developing under the gums.Once teeth break through the gums, you cannot develop fluorosis.. Fluorosis isn’t a disease and doesn’t affect the health of your teeth. The condition is more prevalent in rural areas where drinking water is derived from shallow wells or hand pumps. Please ensure that the drinking water supplied to you is fluoride free or within the permissible limits.Once it is known that fluoride is getting from drinking water and other sources such as fruit juices and soft drinks, you can work with your dentist to decide whether or not your child should have a fluoride supplement.A very good article by the author on the subject. [19], Many well-known sources of fluoride may contribute to overexposure including dentifrice/fluoridated mouthrinse (which young children may swallow), excessive ingestion of fluoride toothpaste, bottled waters which are not tested for their fluoride content, inappropriate use of fluoride supplements, ingestion of foods especially imported from other countries, and public water fluoridation. More than one in five American teens (23%) have moderate to severe dental fluorosis on at least two teeth. "2 The majority of cases are mild and do not permanently damage teeth, and severe cases of fluorosis are not common.However, signs of severe fluorosis include: 1. Mild fluorosis appears as cloudy or pearly white lines, patches or marks on the surface of the tooth enamel. Primary dentine fluorosis and enamel fluorosis can only happen during tooth formation, so fluoride exposure occurs in childhood. This article contains details about Fluorosis, its Source and distribution, affects of Fluorosis, types of Fluorosis, dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, non skeletal fluorosis, symptoms of dental fluorosis, diagnosis of dental fluorosis, differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis, treatment of dental fluorosis and prognosis of disease. The types of fluorosis range from mild to severe, classed according to the visual appearance and physical surface of the tooth. In ancient times, Galen describes what is thought to be dental fluorosis. Severe fluorosis is characterized by brown discoloration and discrete or confluent pitting; brown stains are widespread and teeth often present a corroded-looking appearance. [8] Fluorosis does not cause discolouration to the enamel directly, as upon eruption into the mouth, affected permanent teeth are not discoloured yet. [23] A 2010 CDC report acknowledges an overall incidence of dental fluorosis of 22% from 1986-87 increased to 41% in the early 21st century, with an increase in moderate to severe dental fluorosis from 1% to 4%. When fluorosis is moderate, all of the surfaces of the teeth are mottled and teeth may be ground down and brown stains frequently "disfigure" the teeth. Dental fluorosis may or may not be of cosmetic concern. Mild fluorosis. ©. Defluoridation: Definition-Two types of fluorosis diseases-Removal Technologies Defluoridation is a treatment used to remove fluoride from drinking water. [12] The pits, bands, and loss of areas of enamel seen in severe fluorosis are the result of damage to the severely hypomineralized, brittle and fragile enamel which occurs after they erupt into the mouth.[12]. Frequently included in this classification are teeth showing no more than about 1 – 2mm of white opacity at the tip of the summit of the cusps, of the bicuspids or second molars. 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